2 How can auto-oriented cities with little to no demographic growth, like many in the American Rust Belt, build usable public transportation? 5 key insights regarding such cities: 1. Stagnation is relative decline and not absolute decline. Don’t look back to a mythologized past. 2. Stagnation means you were, relatively speaking, big in the early 20th century, so you have a large historic mainline rail network to use. 3. Job sprawl is likely to be intense, with weak city centers. 4. Freeways, designed in the 1950s around expectations of growth, are overbuilt for today’s needs. 5. Parking, likewise designed around expectations of growth, is overbuilt, especially in city center.