Enjoyed the show very much. One comment: since Gary seems concerned that there are undecidable problems in the static analysis of Python, he may need to be aware that type checking in the ML type system that he seems to endorse so strongly is complete for EXP time. Which means neither works in a worst case sense, but it seems they both work enough in practice. Unfortunately theoretical analysis, which is largely worst case analysis, has shown time and again quite a gap from reality (the simplex is a practical worst case exponential algorithm, whereas there aren’t so many n^10 algorithms in practical use). This happens because the infinite set of slow or undecidable instances for a problem may be a negligible fraction of possible instances. Another observation about type systems is that they allow to check some, not all, interesting properties of a program at compile time in exchange for a certain loss of expressivity, that is additional lines of code needed to express a computation. This is simply because the shortest possible expression of a computation may not type check. This is also observed in practice looking at projects in different languages. The evidence that statically typed languages have fewer bugs per line is weak if it does at all exist, even if it stands to reason that if type checking excludes incorrect computations before they run, it should be helpful. So it is a trade off between the useful constrains one adds to a program to be statically less buggy and the additional verbosity required by type checking. The java.array.util library used to contain this comment: “The code for each of the seven primitive types is largely identical. C’est la vie.” That’s a blatant example of type checking and efficiency requirements (the arrays are “unboxed”, no pointers) causing a 7x code bloat. As Gary said, don’t look at Java, but the ML type system is EXP-time complete. That can’t be good either. The alternative is to check properties at run time with assertions. This is infinitely easier but it can cost in execution time an cause crashes in production. Complement with randomized testing, and you have the best of both worlds: simple property checking on concrete data, not types, and catching most errors before production. It seems to me the sw world is slowly voting with its keyboards for this approach.
Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault
By Stephen R. C. Hicks
Professor of Philosophy
First edition: two hardcover and eight softcover printings from 2004-2010 by Scholargy Publishing.First edition Kindle e-book published 2010.Expanded hardcover edition published in 2011 by Ockham’s Razor.Kindle expanded edition published in 2011.Audiobook edition published April 2013: MP3 and YouTube links below.
Portuguese translation by Silvana Vieira published by Callis Editora (São Paulo, Brazil, 2011). Also in e-book editions at Barnes & Noble, Amazon, and iTunes.Serbian translation of Chapter One by Alma Causevic (2012).Persian translation by H.P. Safir, Khatereh Zohrabi, and Farzaneh Ehsani published by Qoqnoos Publishing (Tehran, Iran, 2013). [Sample pages.] [Also this second translation into Farsi.]Swedish translation published by Timbro (Stockholm, Sweden, 2014).Spanish translation published by Barbarroja Ediciones (Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2015).Polish translation by Piotr Kostyło and Katarzyna Nowak published by University of Kasimir the Great Press (Bydgoszcz, Poland, 2016).Arabic translation forthcoming in 2018.
The First Edition text:
Explaining Postmodernism: Skepticism and Socialism from Rousseau to Foucault [pdf].
The Chapters and Sections:
Frontmatter [pdf]Table of Contents [pdf]
Chapter One: What Postmodernism Is [pdf] [mp3] [YouTube]Chapter Two: The Counter-Enlightenment Attack on Reason [pdf] [mp3] [YouTube]
Chapter Three: The Twentieth-Century Collapse of Reason [pdf] [mp3] [YouTube]
Chapter Four: The Climate of Collectivism [pdf] [mp3] [YouTube]
Chapter Five: The Crisis of Socialism [pdf] [mp3] [YouTube]
Chapter Six: Postmodern Strategy [pdf] [mp3] [YouTube]
Bibliography [pdf] [html]
The Tables and Charts:
Chart 1.1: Defining Pre-modernism and Modernism
Chart 1.2: The Enlightenment Vision [pdf]Chart 1.3: Defining Pre-modernism, Modernism, and Postmodernism
Chart 5.1: Marxism on the Logic of Capitalism
Chart 5.2: Total Livestock in the Soviet Union
Chart 5.3: Gross Physical Output for Selected Food Items
Chart 5.4: Deaths from Democide Compared to Deaths from International War, 1900-1987
Chart 5.5: Left Terrorist Groups’ Founding Dates
Chart 5.6: The Evolution of Socialist Strategies [gif]
Detailed Table of Contents.
The Scholarly Reviews:
Professor Curtis Hancock in The Review of Metaphysics (and can be read online here).
Professor Gary Jason in Liberty (also online here.)
Professor Marcus Verhaegh in The Independent Review.
Dr. David Gordon in The Mises Review.
Professor Max Hocutt in The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies.
Professor Edvard Lorkovic in Philosophy in Review.
Professor Steven M. Sanders in Reason Papers.
Professor Mistaken (pseudonym) in Uncouth Opinions.
Return to the StephenHicks.org main page.
What’s behind President Trump’s public outbursts and behind-the-scenes outrage? Well, a number of news reports suggest that Mueller’s sweeping investigation is putting the squeeze on the President’s inner circle. Josh breaks down what we know.Image credit: Getty Images:Win McNamee/TPM Illustration
As a child, Deirdre Sullivan learned from her father to always pay her respects at funerals. Now, this NPR listener believes those simple acts of human kindness are as important as the grand gestures.
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