Episode 1: Introduction | The History of English Podcast


My hobby is DNA research an in particular am running a project covering a new branch of DNA that we current call ‘South Baltic’.

It is a brother branch separate from the R-U106 (often called the Germanic line) and R-P312 (mostly associated with Celtic peoples). We are R-S1194.

The emergence of the Steppe herders from the region above the Black sea opened a new understanding for us and we have been looking at the ways the Yamnya pastoralists would have reached the region where the Unetice Culture emerged (Bohemia or Czech Republic).

Your podcasts offer a fascinating way of looking at the movement of these people and them blending with others along their Journey into Western Europe.

The one aspect of this whole story exemplified in the split and apparent homelands of the Celts & Germanics is the issue of did this westward migration involve two groups of the same people – one moving up south of the Carpathians & along the Danube to perhaps found the R-P312 branch of R1b, and a separate group

moving towards Bohemia through the Ukraine and or Russia then Poland and later on to the Scandinavian & Nth German regions.

The challenge I have been looking at is ‘was there a dual migration of Yamnaya/Kurgan people two groups going both Nth & Sth of the Carpathians’, or, was there only one migration nth of the Carpathians plus a later back migration down south of the Carpathians.

The reason the dual-migration path has challenges is that the immediate parent SNP for all the branches of R1b (particularly R-U106, R-P312 & R-S1194) is R-L11 and that SNP (even in ancient DNA burials now being analysed) can’t be found other

that around Bohemia. It appears to have emerged either in Ukraine or Poland or Bohemia itself. Thus implying their could only be one migration route either via the nth or the sth route around the Carpathians.

Your podcasts make a very strong case for a dual migration path from the Steppes, with proto-Germanic evolving Nth of the Carpathians and proto-Celtic evolving via a Sth of the Carpathians migration.

However, this leads to the issue of the missing common R-L11 SNP from below the Carpathians.

So was it possible that the Sth Carpathian route reflects a migration of the culture and language for the ‘Celtic’ branch of PIE, rather than the actual people. (i.e. did the language migrate itself, if it turns out that R-L11 people did not do that Sth migration ?

Again, your podcasts offer an intriguing explanation for how the Celtic and Germanic languages might have reached Hallstatt (Celtic) & Bohemia (both)

differently, and, why the daughter languages are so different.

I recommend to all my project members to try to listen to as many of your podcasts as they are able. The work is excellent and commendable.

Doug Marker

Project Admin – R-S1194 (Sth Baltic DNA)