Rethinking Native Culture — It’s time to hit the reset button and re-think everything we know about Native American culture.
Native Americans went to war to protect their lands (News from VOA.com) The American nation began to expand west during the middle eighteen hundreds. People settled in the great open areas of the Dakotas, Utah, Wyoming, and California. The movement forced the nation to deal with great tribes of native American Indians. The Indians had lived in the western territories for hundreds of years.
How stupid are Americans; am I right? I mean, just look at the stupid pundits on the stupid tv channels for stupid Americans. What about the stupid candidates that are making the stupid Americans clap for the stupid things the stupid candidates say? Stupid sluts.
Professor Michelle H. Raheja (UC Riverside) – Redfacing Redux: The Afterlife of Native American Images For better or worse, Native American images have deeply influenced settler colonial visual culture since at least 1492. From engravings depicting the putative cannibalism and savagery of Indigenous peoples in the sixteenth through seventeenth centuries, to silent cinema and Western films in the twentieth century, to contemporary historical revisionist movies in the first decade of the twenty-first century, Native Americans have been central to European American colonial and nationalist fantasies. Indigenous peoples have also represented settler colonialism since invasion/contact as evidenced by the matachine dances and more recently in contemporary films by Native Americans that critique and re-present the distorted point of view offered up by most mainstream films. In particular, work by filmmakers such as Klee Benally, Marcelina Cárdenas, the Chiapas Media Project, Thirza Cuthand, Chris Eyre, Sterlin Harjo, Igloolik Isuma, Terry Jones, Shelley Niro, Sandra Sunrising Osawa, and many, many others has challenged entrenched stereotypes about Indigenous peoples and offered original, engaging, and insightful self-representations of historical and contemporary communities. This keynote interrogates what kind of impact, if any, this growing body of important work has had on the general public in the United States and what kind of burden we place on Indigenous filmmakers by expecting them to undo the racist imagery that has been in circulation for the past 500+ years. As I detail briefly in Reservation Reelism (2010), one week after I submitted the revisions of the manuscript to the press editor, I intimately became aware of the persistent, sometimes violent afterlife of mainstream images of Native Americans, despite the resurgence in Indigenous filmmaking during the past twenty years. In November 2008, my daughter’s public elementary school reenacted a Thanksgiving spectacle with children dressing in phantasmic redface costumes and representing Pilgrims as friendly, harmless neighbours. When I queried her school about why this practice would persist in comparison with the much less offensive methods employed to teach histories of other marginalized peoples, the ensuing uproar instigated local and national news coverage; threats of violence against my family; and various forms of electronic harassment that persisted for over a year. Although I employ a very local and personal anecdote to frame my discussion of the afterlife of images of Native Americans, I use it to open up a conversation about the mode of production of Indigenous film, its distribution, and the mass public’s recalcitrant refusal to reconsider Indigenous history through a different lens.